At each of NPP sites, Environmental Survey Laboratories (ESL) are set up, which are operated by an independent organization viz. Health Physics Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. At the existing NPPs sites, ESLs have been collecting and analysing radioactivity levels in the samples of various environmental matrices in the radius of 30 km from the plant site. Their reports conclude that the dose to population at the fence resulting from the existing NPPs in the country is about 1.5% of the authorized dose limit of AERB, which is a small fraction of the natural background radiation. The doses at further distances are still lower.
At NPP sites, environmental studies such as condenser cooling water discharge studies, thermal ecological studies, biodiversity conservation studies etc. are carried out for insuring compliance to environmental standards and environmental clearance stipulations from regulating agencies such as MoEF, AERB and State Pollution Control Board. These studies have demonstrated that the effect of thermal discharges from NPPs on marine ecology is confined to a small area and is reversible in nature.